PGS - Precision Gamma Spectrometer

Main Scientific Objectives

    Measurement of gamma radiation from the Martian surface, powerful solar flares and gamma-bunts. The instrument operates continuously along the Earth-to-Mars trajectory recording cosmic gamma-rays. In orbit around Mars, the instrument measures gamma spectra of the surface.


    Detection unit with a thermal control system
    Spectrometric amplifier
    Power supply unit
    Amplitude analysis unit
    Data processing unit and output to the MORION system

    The detection unit with an amplifier and a thermal control system will be mounted on a special deploying structure to prevent heat loads from spacecraft hardware

Main Characteristics

	Volume of each of two HpGe		90 cm3
	Measurement range			0.03 to 8 MeV
	Number of spectral channel		4096
	Time resolution in burst mode		61 µ s
	Time resolution in planet mode		1-5 min
	Time resolution in background mode	10 to 120 min
	Mass					25.65 kg

LILAS-2 - Cosmic and Solar Gamma-Burst Spectrometer

Main Scientific Objectives

    High-precision localization (delta-phi = 10 sec of are) of gamma-burst sources using data from ULYSSES and near-Earth satellites
    Investigation of gamma-burst emission mechanisms
    Analysis of low-energy absorption features
    Study of thermal emission in the burst decay phase
    Test of the Mars atmosphere model using the absorption of X-rays from the sources Sco-X1 and Cyg-X1

Main Characteristics

	Sensor #1, 2			cleaved NaI(Tl). d X h - 72 X 10 mm
	Energy range			4 keV to 1 MeV
	Energy resolution		36-40% FWHM at 5.9 keV
					7.6-8.0 FWHM at 662 keV
	Sensitivity			5 X 10-7 erg/cm2
	Resolution			1 ms for integral measurements
					0.25 s for spectral analysis
	Power consumption		3 W
	Mass				6.0 kg

	Cosmic gamma burst spectrum with 3 absorption features at 10.4,
	18.3, and 25.8 keV (experiment LILAS, PHOBOS mission data).

EVRIS - Stellar Oscillation Photometer

Main Objectives

    Study of pulsations, rotations and the internal structure of stars. Photometric microvariability of stars is the only observable manifestation of processes occurring in their internal structures.


    Long-term, continuous, and high-accuracy photometry of stars along the Earth-to-Mars trajectory


    EVRIS contains a telescope, a photometer. and a CCD-based star sensor. The instrument is installed on the PAIS platform.

Main Characteristics

	Limiting magnitude			mv < 4
	Number of stars to be observed		10-20
	Spectral range of observations		300-800 nm
	Periods of expected pulsations		1-10 min
	Photometer FOV				16 min of arc
	Star sensor FOV				3° 
	Scanning zone size			30°-60°
	Pointing accuracy			0.5-1 min of arc
	Brightness measurement accuracy		10-6
	Information capacity			1 Mbit/day
	Duration of one observation session	3-4 weeks
	Power consumption			5 W
	Mass					7.4 kg

SOYA - Solar Oscillation Photometer

Main Objectives

    Study of the Sun's internal structure from measurements of solar brightness oscillations


    Long-term, continuous, and high-accuracy photometry of the Sun along the Earth-to-Mars trajectory


    SOYA consists of a solar photometer with a filter at 845 nm with a 5 nm passband, a two-axis solar sensor built around COD-arrays for making corrections of photometric data by changing the spacecraft orientation. The SOYA and EPICAM instruments share a common electronics unit.

Main Characteristics

	Brightness resolution Delta-I/I		10-6
	FOV					1-5° 
	Number of pixels in a CCD array		1024 pixels
	Angle measurement accuracy		20 sec of arc
	Mass					1 kg

RADIUS-M - Radiation/Dosimetry Control Complex

Main Scientific Objective

    Study of radiation conditions along flight trajectories to Mars and near the planet
    Timely forecast of the spacecraft irradiation dose
    Dosimetric control on board the spacecraft
    Processes of generation and propagation of charged particles in the interplanetary space
    Estimation of meteorite hazard to a spacecraft
    Measure Sun's X-ray flux
    Estimate the energy of solar X-ray bursts
    Determine the energy spectra and spatial distribution of charged particle fluxes within a wide energy range
    Identify the mass composition of charged particle fluxes
    Determine an integral dose and its rate as well as spectra of linear losses of charged particle energy
    Measure the density of micrometeoritic particle flows


	Component					Mass	Power

	SF-2 photon spectrometer 			5 kg	2 W
	SES-20 charged particle spectrometer 		5 kg	5 W
	KS-18M cosmic-ray monitor			3 kg	3 W
	RADIUS-MD meter of absorbed radiation dose
	TERS equivalent dose meter			1.5 kg	1.5 W
	AFDP-2 micrometeorite flux meter
	RADIUS-MI interface unit

Main Characteristics

	X-ray radiation flux				2 to 20 keV
	Energy and spatial distribution of charged
	  particle fluxes within energy ranges
		for electrons				0.07 to 1.5 MeV
		for protons				0.05 to 200 MeV
		for heavy nuclei (2 <= Z <= 20)		2 to 4.0 MeV/nucleon

	Micrometeorite fluxes:
		Velocity range				3 to 35 km/s;
		Mass range				5 X 10-4 to 109g
		Self-charges particles			10-14 to 10-9 C

	Spacecraft dose rate behind 0.1 mm, 1.0 mm, and 10.0 mm Al
	Spectra of linear losses of charged particle energy within 0.3 to 1500
	keV/µ m

Operation Program

    Continuous operation along the Earth-to-Mars trajectory; the data capacity is 2 Mbit/day
    Operation near Mars should follow a special program
    Data volume is 0.2 Mbit/day

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