ASPERA-S - Energy-Mass Ion Spectrograph and Neutral-Particle Imager

Main Scientific Objectives

    Interaction between the plasma and neutrals near Mars
    Plasma ion composition


ASPERA-S consists of:

    Ion-Mass Imaging Spectrometer (IMIS)

      Electrostatic "top hat" analyzer
      Particles are detected by "imaging" sensor using a microchannel plate assembly with position sensitive anodes, 32 x 32 (angle x mass) matrix.

    Neutral Particle Imager (NPI)

      NPI-1, SSD, records neutral atoms.
      NPI-2, LiF, records secondary ions and electrons generated by neutral particles (E > 10 eV) (LiF target). An electrostatic filter deflects all charged particles with energies less than 300 keV/q.

    Scanner Platform

      +/-90° , provides full coverage within 4 pi solid angle

Main Characteristics

				   IMIS		  NP-1		NP-2
						  SSD		LiF
    Energy range		   0.5-50 keV	  5-300 keV	>=10 eV
    Energy resolution (Delta-E/E)  0.07		  0.36		<1
    Angular resolution(degree)	   5 X 11.3	  5 X 5		5 X 5
    Field of view (degree)	   +/-5 X 360	  5 X 320	5 X 360
    Geometry factor
    (cm2s ster keV/q		   10-4		  3 X 10-4	3 X 10-4
    Mass range (a.m.u.)		   1-1012	  1-102 (SSD)	1-1012
    Mass resolution		   1.3-6.4 (hot)  < 1		< 1
				   4.0 - 30 (cold)
    Counting rate (s-1)		   0.1- l06	  0.001-105	0.001-105
    Mass			   8.8 kg

FONEMA - Fast Omnidirectional Non-Scanning Energy-Mass Analyzer

Main Scientific Objectives

    Structure, dynamics, and origin of plasma formations in the near-Mars space from measurements of three-dimensional distribution functions of hot ions and flux parameters with high time resolution


    36 Thomson parabolic energy-mass analyzers for measuring a 3D distribution function for several sorts of ions within the wide energy range and with the high resolution.

Main Characteristics

	Energy range			20 eV-8 keV
	Energy resolution Delta-E/E	0.2
	FOV				4 pi
	Angular resolution (degree)	30 x 60
	Geometry factor(cm2 ster)	4.2 X 10-5
	Mass range (a.m.u.)		1-30
	Mass resolution, M/Delta-M	6
	Time resolution			0.1 s
	Mass				8.8 kg

DYMIO - Omnidirectional Ionospheric Energy-Mass-Spectrometer

Main Scientific Objectives

    Dynamics of the Martian ionosphere and the ion composition of the thermal plasma of ionospheric origin in the magnetosphere of Mars



      Parameters of the ionosphere: ion number densities and ion composition, ion temperature and convective velocity
      Parameters of ions leaving the ionosphere, and their contribution to the ion composition of the magnetosphere
      Dynamics of the ionosphere and magnetosphere and their relationship with the solar wind interaction with Mars


    DYMIO is an omnidirectional ionospheric energy-mass-spectrometer with energy and angular distribution analysis capabilities

Main Characteristics

	Field of view			4 pi
	Sensitivity			10-1 ions/cm3
	Time resolution			0.25 s
	Mass range			1-44 a.m.u.
	Number density range		10-1-l05 cm-3
	Number density accuracy		10%
	Temperature range		200-10,000 K
	Temperature accuracy		10% for Ti > 1000 K
	Velocity accuracy		100 m/s for Vi < 1000 m/s
	Data flow (max)			1-2 kbit/s
	Mass				6.1 kg

MARIPROB - Ionospheric Plasma Spectrometers

Main Scientific Objectives

    Measure martian ionosphere and the cold plasma convection in the Martian magnetosphere


    MARIPROB measures the following ionospheric parameters:

      Electron number density
      Electron temperature
      Ion number density
      Mass composition of major components
      Full vector of the ion drift velocity


    MARIPROB instrument consists of:

      2 identical ion energy spectrometers
      A set of 28 retarding potential analyzers
      Spherical ion probe
      A spherical retarding potential analyzer operating in a floating mode with periodic measurements of integral cold ion energy spectra

Main Characteristics

    Ion, electron number densities, Ni, Ne,	0.1-5 X 105 cm-3
    Ion, electron temperature. Ti, Te,		< 15,000 K
    Cold plasma convection velocity		10 m/s-35 km/s
    FOV						4 pi
    Mass composition				2-3 major masses (H+, O+,O2+)
    Mass					7.9 kg

MAREMF - Electron Analyzer and Magnetometer

Main Scientific Objectives

    Measurements with a high accuracy and a high time resolution, of the three-dimensional distribution of electron velocity and magnetic-field vector in the plasma environment of Mars and in the solar wind Measurements of martian magnetic-field characteristics Study of Martian bow shock characteristics Study of physical processes in the magnetosheath and magnetotail Study of magnetic field topology from the electron flux anisotropy data


    The MAREMF experiment combines two fluxgate magnetometers and two spectrometers for measuring 3D distributions of electrons

Main Characteristics


		Dynamic range			+/-32, +/-128 nT
		Resolution			4 pi T
		Max sampling rate		100 vectors/s

	Electron spectrometer

		E/q range			0.5 eV to 2 keV
		Field of view			4 pi
		Spectral resolution		14%
		Angular resolution		4 x 22 degree
		Mass				11.3 kg

ELISMA - Wave Complex

Main Scientific Objectives

    Study of the Martian magnetosphere oblateness by the solar wind and of the energy transfer through the shock and planetopause
    Identification of instabilities in the ionosphere and magnetosphere
    Study of waves of atmospheric origin generated by sand storms and lightning
    Global mapping of plasma convection
    Distribution of thermal plasma temperature and density to an altitude of 300 km
    Dynamic relationship between the upper atmosphere and the lower ionosphere


    Electric field sensors (3 double Langmuir probes consisting of four noncoplanar identical spheres mounted on booms)
    Magnetic field sensors (three orthogonal search coil sensors)
    Langmuir probe
    High frequency (HF) and mutual impedance (MI) probe
    Analyzers of the frequency spectrum of physical parameters to be measured
    Microprocessor system

Main Characteristics

	Electric field, Ex, Ey, Ez frequency range	0-2 X 105 Hz
	Magnetic field, Bx, By, Bz frequency range	10-1-2 X 103 Hz
	Electron number density. Ne
		Langmuir probe				10-105 cm-3
		Mutual impedance probe			1-102 cm-3
		Frequency range				0-103 Hz
	Electron temperature, Te			0.1-10 eV
	Total Mass					11.48 kg

SLED-2 - Low-Energy Charged Particle Spectrometer

Main Scientific Objectives

    Detailed studies of energetic particle radiation in the Martian environment and monitoring of low-energy cosmic rays along the Earth-to-Mars trajectory


    Four ion telescopes with electron broom magnets
    One electron telescope protected by foil

Main Characteristics

	Energy range (12 channels)		20 keV - several MeV
	Field of view of each, telescope	30° 
	Geometry factor (of each)		0.3 cm2ster
	Mass					3.3 kg

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